Adult patients were randomly assigned to receive ketorolac 31.5 mg (n ¼ 214) or placebo (n ¼ 107) every 6 hr after surgery for 48 hr, then up to 4 times/day for up to 5 days.
Morphine sulfate via patient controlled analgesia was available in both groups as needed.
Effective management of acute postoperative pain often involves a multimodal approach incorporating the use of nonopioid analgesics in order to optimize analgesic efficacy and reduce opioid-related side effects. Nonopioid analgesics are often preferred in ambulatory surgeries to allow patients to return to normal functioning more quickly. Ketorolac is a nonopioid, balanced COX1/2 inhibitor used for the short-term management of moderate-to-severe acute pain in patients undergoing inpatient and ambulatory procedures.